1901 - 1950 AD


1901

`The first Vegetarian Society is formed in Russia. After the 1917 revolution, vegetarianism was declared illegal.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1902

Bernarr Macfadden opens his first Physical Culture vegetarian restaurant in lower Manhattan. Within six years it is a successful chain in seven cities in the eastern U.S. Macfadden goes on to write over 100 books on the virtues of a vegetarian diet. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1903

`Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-1990) `Every happening, great and small, is a parable whereby God speaks to us, and the art of life is to get the message.’ Malcolm Muggeridge was a British journalist, author, media personality, satirist, and spy for the British government during WW II. `He corresponded with Gandhi and encouraged the Indians to throw off the British yoke....Though Muggeridge had many vegetarian friends and associates, he did not become a vegetarian until the mid-sixties when he the horrific conditions in which animals were raised on factory farms.' He spent the remainder of his life protesting the intensive rearing of animals for food. 4. Famous Vegetarians & Their Favorite Recipes: Lives & Lore, From Buddha to the Beatles, by Rynn Berry.https://en.wikipedia.org/


1904

Cookbook – E.G. Fulton publishes Substitute for Flesh Foods: Vegetarian Cookbook.  7. The Heretic’s Feast: A History of Vegetarianism by Colin Spencer.


1906

The Jungle by Upton Sinclair is published, revealing the revolting and unsanitary conditions and inhumane labor practices in Chicago stockyards. It becomes and instant bestseller, fueling the growing vegetarian movement.’1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.

1907 

On Sept. 24, Dr. G. Cooke Adams article titled Cancer Increasing Among Meat Eaters appears in the New York Times. “Dr. Adams has proved conclusively that diet is a most important factor in the increase of disease and its death rate.” 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1908

`The International Vegetarian Union is formed to unite vegetarian societies globally and provide conferences.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1909

Cookbook - Jean O. Mill publishes her cookbook,  Reform Cookery Book: Up-To-Date Health Cookery for the Twentieth Century. 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1910

Cookbook – Rupert H. Wheldon publishes his cookbook,  No Animal Food. 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1912

Cookbook - George J. Drews published his cookbook, Unfired Food and Tropho-Therapy(1st raw food cookbook?) 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1915

Cookbook -  Dr Thomas R. Allinson, publishes his cookbook, The Allinson Vegetarian Cookbook. He goes onto start Dr. Allinson's Natural Food Co. on England. 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1917

Herbert Hoover, head of US Food Administration at the time, launches Meatless Mondays and Wheatless Wednesdays after the United States enters WW I. Millions of American families plant liberty and war gardens, later to be called victory gardens. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1920

Soy food products are developed and promoted to a wider audience by Seventh Day Adventists such as T. A. Van Gundy and Jethro Kloss.1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1924

Dennis Weaver (1924-2006) was an athlete, navy pilot, actor, humanitarian, a passionate environmentalist, and the first known stage or sceen actor to become vegetarian. He was also a devouted follower of Paramahansa Ypgananda. `At many a dinner party, he shocked his hosts and friends by eating only the vegetables on his plate.'...“There was one sceen (on Gunsmoke) in which he (Dennis Weaver) was supposed to devour a hot dog, and he wouldn’t have any part of it. In order to give the illusion that he was eating hot dogs, we had to make them out of vegetarian product; as soon as we did, he gobbled them right up.”4. Famous Vegetarians & Their Favorite Recipes: Lives & Lore, From Buddha to the Beatles, by Rynn Berry. https://en.wikipedia.org/


Jon Wynne-Tyson (b:1924) is a British author, publisher, activist and pacifist who founded Centaur Press in 1954. The company expanded into humane education releasing titles on topics such as vegetarianism, animal rights and related philosophy. At one time Wynne-Tyson held the title of "King of Redonda", a literary title referencing a small island. He has written 14 books in total,] including books about vegetarianism and animal rights. His autobiography also describes the relationship between his mother Esmé Wynne-Tyson. His works include Food For a Future - The Complete Case For Vegetarianism (1979) and The Extended Circle - A Dictionary of Humane Thought (1985). 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. 7. The Heretic’s Feast: A History of Vegetarianism by Colin Spencer. https://en.wikipedia.org/


1925

Irish Playwright, George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page 4. Famous Vegetarians & Their Favorite Recipes: Lives & Lore, From Buddha to the Beatles, by Rynn Berry. 7. The Heretic’s Feast: A History of Vegetarianism by Colin Spencer. https://en.wikipedia.org/


Cookbook - Mrs. Richter’s Cook-less Book with Scientific Food Chart by Vera Richter is published. 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1929

Bridgid Antonia Brophy (1929-1995) was a British novelist, feminist, pacifist, and advocate for animal rights. She was the author of 15 works of fiction and non-fiction. In 1965, her controversial essay for the London Sunday Times (The Rights of Animals), revealed the hypocrisy of the animal-loving British public. At this time, Brophy proclaimed herself a vegetarian and an antivivisectionist.  She issued a challenge: `the British could demonstrate their much-vaunted love for animals by ceasing to eat them.' This was the first time a major English personality had declared herself a vegetarian (and eventually a vegan) in public print. `She was the first author to analyze human carnivorism and man’s relationship to animals in Freudian terms.’ 4. Famous Vegetarians & Their Favorite Recipes: Lives & Lore, From Buddha to the Beatles, by Rynn Berry. 7. The Heretic’s Feast: A History of Vegetarianism by Colin Spencer. https://en.wikipedia.org/


`A Saturday Evening Post article reports that as a result of Meatless Mondays and other WW I dietary changes, Americans began to seriously question what and how much they are eating, stating,” they frequently feel better”. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


The disastrous results of the Great Depression leads to the first farm bill passed in 1933.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1930

Sadie Schildkraut opens a chain of 15 vegetarian restaurants in New York City. Members of the Yidisher Vegetarian Society of New York view vegetarianism as a moral philosophy. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1931

After reading Henry Salt’s A Plea for Vegetarianism and recommitting to a vegetarian diet, Mohandas Gandhi influences Leo Tolstoy and Henry David Thoreau. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. 7. The Heretic’s Feast: A History of Vegetarianism by Colin Spencer. https://en.wikipedia.org/


Cookbook - University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service publishes Let's Cook Soy Beans. 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1932-1934

`In the U.K., the People’s League of Health and the Gowland Hopkins Committee report that a minimum of 40% of tested dairy cows were infected with tuberculosis which was being transmitted to the country’s human population. Of the children tested in London in 1930, 58% has contracted tuberculosis.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1934 

`Automaker Henry Ford, a vegetarian, showcases soybean dishes at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1935

Cookbook - Frances Linda Dittes publishes her cookbook,  Food for Life, The Art and Science of Preparing Food . 2. Vintage Vegetarian Cuisine: Early Advocates of a Vegetarian Diet and Some of their Recipes, from 1699 to 1935, by Mark Thompson.


1938

Tom Regan (b: 1938), is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at North Carolina State University, where he teaches animal rights theory. He first published his classic, The Morale Basis of Vegetarianism, in 1975. In his subsequent book, All that Dwell Therein in 1982. He retired in 2001. 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. https://en.wikipedia.org/


1939

Jethro Kloss’s book, Back to Eden, is published. Over four million copies are sold. The book helps to inspire the natural foods movement. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1941

When the United States enters WW2, Americans are encouraged to plant “victory gardens”. During the war more than 20 million gardens were planted and they provided 40% of all fresh vegetables consumed in America. U.S. food rations allowed only 28 oz. of meat per week per family. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1942

`` B & H Dairy kosher vegetarian restaurant (meatless except for lox) is opened at 127 Second Avenue in New York City. It is still open today.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


Peter Wentz (b: 1942), a philosophy professor at Sangamon State University, believes “healthy ecosystems are of value, that the value of an ecosystem is positively related to its degree of health, and that at least part of this value is independent of humans and other sentient beings.” If this assumption is granted, one must concede “the prescription to be vegetarian.” He make his point in, An Ecological Argument for Vegetarianism.’ 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. https://en.wikipedia.org/)


1944

In Britain, Donald Watson (1910 – 2005) and his wife, Dorothy, coin the term “vegan (1944) to describe vegetarians who do not eat dairy of eggs. He specified the pronunciation as ”Veegan not Veejan (or Vejan). The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animals for any purpose. Watson was the founder of the Vegan Society (U.K.; 1944). 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page. 7. The Heretic’s Feast: A History of Vegetarianism by Colin Spencer. www.foodsforlife.org.uk/people/Donald-Watson.../Donald-Watson.html


Frances Moore Lappe’ (b: 1944) was deeply moved by the image of the small and fragile planet earth when she saw it on television after the first human had set foot on the moon. This inspired her to research world hunger and the destruction of our planet home. She wrote Diet for a Small Planet in 1970. She started a world-wide dietary revolution. In 2001, Lappe` and her daughter Ann established the Small Planet Institute. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page; 4. Famous Vegetarians & Their Favorite Recipes: Lives & Lore, From Buddha to the Beatles, by Rynn Berry. 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. https://en.wikipedia.org/


1945

`The New York Times runs the story “Heyday for the Vegetarians” on vegeterians’ efforts to convert meat eaters in the wake of the meat shortages. Symon Gould, an editor of American Vegetarian magazine, classifies the hierarchy of vegetarians.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


Post WWII – All ten of the U.S. munitions factories are now used to make fertilizers. `Agribusiness is born and a chemical-based process quickly develops as a result of large-scale farming. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


`Thomas Auxter (b:1945) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Florida, argues that wild animals have a right not to be eaten and that the practice of stock farming for meat production should be discontinued. He approaches this question from the perspective of teleological ethical theory.’ 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. https://en.wikipedia.org/


`Stephen R. L. Clark (b:1945) is a British philosopher and professor emeritus of philosophy at the University of Liverpool. Clark specializes in the philosophy of religion and animal rights, writing from a philosophical position that might broadly be described as Christian Platonist. He is the author of 17 books, including The Moral Status of Animals (1977), The Nature of the Beast (1982), Animals and Their Moral Standing (1997).’ 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. https://en.wikipedia.org/


1946

`Peter Singer (b: 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher. He is currently the Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeton University, and a Laureate Professor at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the University of Melbourne. He specializes in applied ethics and approaches ethical issues from a secularutilitarian perspective. He is known in particular for his book, Animal Liberation (1975).’ 5. Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer, Edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. https://en.wikipedia.org/


1948

`Dr. Catherine Nimmo and Robin Abramowitz found a Vegan Society in California. It lasts until 1960.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


`The Framingham Heart Study is established in Massachusetts to identify factors contributing to cardiovascular disease.' It lasts over half a century and spurs over 1,200 publications on key risk factors to our health. 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.


1949

`The first American Vegetarian Convention is held in August at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.

`The advent of nutritional science leads vegetarianism to be embraced as a healthful dietary option.’ 1. The Vegetarian Flavor Bible, by Karen Page.